Here are some instruments worth learning about. Most of this is very technical, but very useful if you were playing with simulators.
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) provides a top down view of your position relative to a VOR radial. This is one of the most important instruments used for navigation and bearing. It is also one of the most interesting to use because it allows one to make a perfect approach for a runway landing. If you did not understand how this instrument worked, then it would be difficult to make runway landings.
This is a ground-based transmitter that transmits lines of signals called radials. Each radial is one degree apart in every direction (360°). A pilot tunes into a particular radial when approaching the runway to make the best approach. When landing the approach is the most critical.
The VOR is also utilised to set the bearing. This is the direction to take when setting off on a journey.
When you use the HSI to track a VOR radial, the HSI provides a visual display of the radial as a line. It also provides a visual display of the direction of the plane. The goal is to stay aligned with the radial thereby maintaining the desired course. When making an approach, one stays aligned with the radial, which keeps the plane parallel with the runway.
This instrument shows the aircraft's position relative to the selected radial.
The radio magnetic indicator combines information from radio, and magnetic instruments to provide heading, bearing, and radial information.
The Instrument Landing System (ILS) is a set of navigational aids and beacons to help pilots land the plane. It provides horizontal and vertical guidance when approaching the runway. It consists of:
1. The localiser
2. The glide slope
3. The outer, middle, and inner marker beacons
The localizer beacon sends out a vertical radio beam along the centre line of the runway. The glide slope beacon transmits a beam at right angles to the localizer beam. This beam is 3° to the horizontal for the ideal approach angle.
During the landing, the pilot can use these indicators to manoeuvre the plane and attain the correct approach path. Alternatively, they can let the autopilot manoeuvre the aircraft automatically on the correct approach path
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